Prototype Integrated Decision-Support Tool for Air Quality and Climate Measures

Prototype Integrated Decision-Support Tool for Air Quality and Climate Measures
MEASURE: quant. info EMISSIONS DURING USE: LIFE CYCLE: ? EFFECTS:
Air quality Climate
(CO2)
CO2 emissions Energy efficency Noise pollution Emissions Displacement (energy source: conventional) ? Emissions Displacement (energy source: renewables) ?
Transport Buses Exchange conventional diesel buses with urban CNG buses HD Euro II - 91/542/EEC II
++ ++
Exchange conventional diesel buses with Urban diesel buses HD Euro IV - 2005
++ ++ ++ +
Replace Urban diesel buses HD Euro III - 2000
with Urban diesel buses HD Euro IV - 2005
++ ++ ±
Passenger
cars
Replace gasoline vehicles by Diesel vehicles
+ +
Replace gasoline vehicles by PHEV central motor
+ ++ ++ + ± ++
Replace gasoline vehicles by FCEV central motor
++ ++ ++ + ± ++
Bicycle
types
Replace gasoline vehicles by bicycle NA ++ ++ ++ +
Replace gasoline vehicles by pedelec NA ++ ++ ++ +
Energy Green
roofs
Replace traditional roof by extensive green roof (thin soil application; light plant weight from e.g. mosses, grasses, sedums) NA + + + +
Replace traditional roof by intensive green roof (relative thick soil application, heavier plants, considering of static loadability) NA + ++ + +

Legend:
++ very positive expectations (above 35% of positive change compared to the initial situation)
+ positive expectations
± no significant change expected
negative expectations
no data or not relevant
CNG Compressed natural gas
HD Heavy-duty
PHEV Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle
FCEV Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle
Click for quantitative information
? Click for more information
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Sources:
Blondel B. et al. (2011), Cycle more Often 2 cool down the planet! Quantifying CO2 savings of cycling.
Brinkman G. et al. (2010), Effects of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles on Ozone Concentrations in Colorado. In: Environ. Sci. Technol. 2010, 44, 6256–6262.
Calef D., Goble R. (2005), The Allure of Technology: How France and California Promoted Electric Vehicles to Reduce Urban Air Pollution. Leibniz Information Centre for Economics.
Commission of Experts for Research and Innovation (EFI) (2010), Research, innovation and technological performance in Germany - EFI Report 2010
European Environmental Agency (EEA) (2012), Urban adaptation to climate change in Europe. Challenges and opportunities for cities together with supportive national and European policies. EEA Report No 2/2012
European Environmental Agency (EEA) (2013), Air Quality in Europe - 2013 report. EEA Report No 9/2013
Ji S. et al. (2012), Electric vehicles in China: emissions and health impacts. Supplemental Online Material regarding to Ji S. etal. (2012). In: Environmental Science and Technology 2012, 46, 2018-2024
Lindqvist K. (2012), Emission standards for light and heavy road vehicles. AirClim Factsheet no: 25, 2012
Pehnt M. (2001), Life-cycle assessment of fuel cell stacks. In: International Journal of Hydrogen Energy 26 (2001) 91-101
Steenhof et al. (2008), A comparison of alternative technologies to de-carbonize Canada's passenger transportation sector. In: Technological Forecasting and Social Change 75(8), (2008) 1260-1278.
van Vliet O. et al. (2010), Techno-economic comparison of series hybrid, plug-in hybrid, fuel cell and regular cars. In: Journal of Power Sources 195 (2010) 6570–6585.
van Vliet O. et al. (2011), Energy use, cost and CO2 emissions of electric cars. In: Journal of Power Sources 196 (2011) 2298–2310.



Source: Blondel B. et al., 2011